What prompted you to look for horizontal chords? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). See the `horizontal guidelines`: guidelines on the applicability of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to horizontal cooperation agreements (OJ L 199 of 11.12.2001, p. 1). OJ C 11, 14.1.2011, p. 1-72). “An agreement is considered horizontal if, at the time of the agreement, its participants are real or potential rivals; and the agreement eliminates some way of rivalry between them. The horizontal agreement is a cooperation agreement between two or more competing companies operating at the same level in the market. It is usually a matter of establishing a healthy relationship between competitors. The key clauses of the agreement may contain guidelines on pricing, production and distribution. The agreement can also discuss the exchange of product and market information. Horizontal agreements can result in breaches of cartel and abuse of dominance rules, as these agreements may include competition limitation clauses. Horizontal agreements for the exchange of competitively sensitive information may, depending on the circumstances, be considered horizontal anti-competitive agreements and fall under Article 4 of the Competition Act. Whether an agreement is legally binding does not matter in the context of the assessment of competition law; Horizontal agreements are restrictive agreements between competitors operating at the same level of the production and distribution chain. Horizontal agreements that, directly or indirectly, result in or are likely to have the effect of preventing, distorting or restricting competition are in themselves violations.
Section 4 of the Competition Protection Act 4054 (the “Competition Act”) prohibits them directly. The main and most frequent types of anti-competitive horizontal agreements are price fixing, supply manipulation, market allocation/distribution and refusal of transactions (group boycott). These horizontal agreements generally have the form of an agreement, which is explained in a separate subcategory. The prohibition of horizontal fixed-price and related agreements is one of its few undisputed provisions and is considered to be well founded in economic principles that are considered the basis of competition policy. However, during the review, the generally expressed views on the design of the law agreement are difficult to articulate operationally, at odds with key aspects of the doctrine and practice of law, and are in no way related to essential elements of modern oligopoly theory. This article examines these and other aspects of the agreement requirement and suggests the need for a complete review of how competition law should deal with the problem of the oligopoly. agreement between the actual definition or definition of potential competitors, i.e. companies operating at the same level of the production or distribution chain. B and which include research and development, production, purchasing or marketing.